Contents - Index - Previous - Next

Web Links and Bibliography

This is a brief selection of further materials and resources relevant to concordancing, both printed and on-line.

See also: Sources of Electronic Text

On-line materials
  • The Concordance website.  See in particular the page 'Getting started with text analysis - tutorials and practical exercises' which has links to high-quality material written by users of Concordance.
  • The Web Concordances The original Web Concordances.  Copyright (c) R.J.C. Watt 1996-2009.  
  • (Report on) The Web Concordances, JISC Technology Applications Programme (JTAP) Report 025, August 1998. A report of around 12,000 words about the issues involved in producing electronic concordances for use on the Web. Available at
    The links below were valid in December 2008 but may have changed since.
  • An introduction to concordancing by Willard McCarty, King's College London:

    The basics of concording  --

    Method in text-analysis --

    Keywords and context --

    Corpus analysis of meaning - The O.J. Simpson Trial --

    Marjorie Chan, Instructions for Concordancing East Asian E-Texts using Concordance:
  • ICT4LT Module 2.4: Using concordance programs in the modern foreign languages classroom: Excellent, extensive, practical material and discussion.
  • Tom Cobb, Is there any measurable learning from hands-on concordancing?
    Printed Materials

    T.H. Howard-Hill, Literary Concordances: a Complete Handbook for the Preparation of Manual and Computer Concordances (Oxford:  Pergamon Press, 1979).  The standard work on how to compile a concordance.  Expert scholarly discussion of editorial and compilation issues.  Lacks treatment of details of computer implementation.

    William Ingram and Kathleen Swaim, A Concordance to Milton's English Poetry  (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972). An outstanding modern example of a printed scholarly concordance.  A near approach to a 'variorum concordance', it succeeds in presenting the complexities of variant author's readings from multiple manuscripts without sacrificing usability.

    R.J.C. Watt, A Concordance to the Poetry of Philip Larkin  (Olms-Weidmann: Hildesheim-Zurich-New York, 1995).  A full-scale modern printed concordance by the author of Concordance.  Arranges citations for each headword in date order, with dates given, thus making it easy to study the evolution of the writer's vocabulary over time.

    Ian Hamilton, 'I Love Concordances' (Diary), London Review of Books, vol. 18 no. 26 (22 August 1996),  p.29. A light-hearted but knowledgeable review of two modern concordances, showing a good sense of the value of a concordance for the reader interested in language and poetic effect.